Morton’s neuroma is caused by pressure on a nerve that goes through a metatarsal tunnel and it is interesting that it was first described by Morton back in 1876. Most often affected nerve is the one that passes through III. metatarsal tunnel (space between heads of III. and IV. metatarsal bones) and much rather nerves that pass through II. and IV. metatarsal tunnel.

Morton’s metatarsalgia is usually associated with wearing high heel shoes and shoes that are too narrow in the front. Also, gestures that lead to excessive stretching of the toes, so called hyperextension of the toes (e.g. sprinting , running uphill and some professions that require longer squat), lead to a narrowing of the metatarsal tunnels and constantly reducing space for nerves causing their swelling and thus nerves become thicker and more prone to a further damage.



Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by articular cartilage destruction – part of the joint that covers the end of the bones. The cartilage destruction is caused by bones that are rubbing against each other causing pain and loss of movement. In many cases, in osteoarthritic joints may develop bony outgrowth called osteophytes.

There are many factors that cause osteoarthritis and some of them are: obesity, old age, sport injuries, genetic predisposition and others. Treatment includes medications such as Andol, Ibuprofren and Diklofenak, use of crutches, canes and walkers to reduce arthritic joints tension.

When non-surgical methods have failed, surgery will be needed.


Plantar fasciitis is manifested as a pain at the bottom of the calcaneus and it occurs as a result of accumulated micropitting causing deterioration (degeneration) of collagen fibers in the fascia on the calcaneus and it belongs to a group of injuries know as overuse injuries.

Plantar fascia is placed under the foot skin and it is separated from her with the layer of the fat (fat at the heel is thicker more than 2 cm) and has three parts: middle, medial and lateral. The middle part is the most important. That is a strong triangular tendon plate that starts at the bulge of calcaneus and it is directed forward.

The main symptom is pain at the starting point of plantar fascia on calcaneus. Sometimes, pain can be spread inside of the foot while the swelling is extremely rare. There is characteristic appearance of very strong pain in the morning when getting up from bed which disappears after a dozen step



Bursitis is an inflammation of “sac” (bursa)  filled with liquid which is located near joints, bones or tendons. Bursa that protects area from friction can become inflamed due to irritation or injury of adjacent joint.

Symptoms of bursitis include localized redness, swelling and pain. Treatment may include rest, ice therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as Ibuprofen, Padding or corticosteroid injections to reduce inflammation and pain. If non-surgical methods do not help, than surgery is required.


Achilles tendon is the final part of a three headed muscle of the lower leg (lat. triceps surae) and it catches on the bottom half of the calcaneus back.  This is the strongest tendon in the human body with of length 5 – 6 cm  and and thickness 5 – 6 mm.

Achilles tendinosis is associated with influence of the force on Achilles tendon while walking and/or running which is increased due to influence of some predisposing factors – anatomical feet deviations (e.g. flat feet),  excessive pronation while walking and/or running, disproportion between strength and flexibility of the muscles that form Achilles tendon and age (age decreases the tendon elasticity).

The main symptom is pain localized 2 – 5 cm above attaching point on calcaneus which is characteristically related to the activity because it appears at the beginning, decreases during and increases after activity. Another characteristic symptom is an appearance of morning pain and stiffness in the talocrural joint which disappears after few steps. In some cases, especially in those who have occurred sudden, patients complain about creaking along the tendon.